Book Review: Mzee Rukhsa – Safari ya Maisha Yangu
This is a review of the memoirs by the second President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Ali Hassan Mwinyi, Mzee Rukhsa: Safari ya Maisha Yangu, by Prof. Rwekaza Mukandala, Mwalimu Nyerere Chair in Pan-African Studies.
The book, published through UONGOZI Institute’s leadership memoirs project, contains H.E. Mwinyi’s personal account of his unique memories. The memoirs range from his childhood, his leadership journey, and his time as president for Zanzibar as well as the United Republic of Tanzania. They are enriched by his views on leadership and advice for aspiring leaders.
Firm performance, trade linkages, and the growth of SMEs in Tanzania
Josaphat Kweka | Julian Boys | Amrita Saha
The private sector and enterprises have a key role to play in the development of the Tanzanian economy. This Policy Brief provides insights and solutions that could offer business sectors the vital policy support that they need to develop and grow.
Trade effects of the East African Customs Union in Tanzania
Abstract: By measuring the effects of forming and joining a regional integration bloc using an augmented structural gravity model, this paper finds that the East African Community (EAC) and EAC Customs Union have significantly enhanced Tanzanian trade into EAC markets. Kenya has continued to be the main trading partner for Tanzania in the EAC markets, and from 2015 onwards the trade deficit with Kenya changed into a surplus, signalling an improvement in the balance of trade. Tanzania has also maintained a significant trade balance surplus with the other EAC Partner States. There have, however, been no significant changes in Tanzania’s trade patterns, which have remained primarily inter-industry rather than intra-industry, signalling a lack of structural change and productivity in the economy and suggesting that Tanzania’s trade-in EAC markets is not linked with industrialization and transformation. Furthermore, continued trade imbalances, especially with Kenya, threaten a backlash in the long term and are not healthy for the future and sustainability of the EAC integration process.
Towards sustainable livelihoods in the Tanzanian informal economy
Ilona Steiler | Chediel Nyirenda
Abstract: In spite of having some intensive national strategies to address poverty, Tanzania lacks a coherent national strategy to ensure sustainable livelihoods for those working in its informal economy, of which street vending is an important sector. Based on qualitative, in-depth data collected through interviews and participant observation between 2014 and 2019, our research scrutinizes how recent policies are improving the sustainable livelihoods of street vendors. We suggest two related foci for research and policy intervention. Firstly, the considerable diversity among street vendors regarding employment relation, gender, age, capital, and assets must be taken into account to design inclusive and sustainable policies. Secondly, the current policies and issuing of identification cards offer new opportunities for vendors to organize and claim their rights, but they need to be unambiguously enshrined in law. This will improve smooth and fair revenue collection and, importantly, street vendor organization and representation in decision-making processes at various levels of government.
Assessing the distributional impact of lowering the value-added tax rate for standard-rated items in Tanzania and options for recouping revenue losses
Elineema Kisanga | Vincent Leyaro | Wahabi Matengo | Michael Nobel | Helen Barnes | Gemma Wright
Abstract: This paper explores the distributional impact of lowering the value-added tax rate for standard-rated items in Tanzania Mainland. Using a static tax-benefit microsimulation model—TAZMOD—which is underpinned by data derived from the Household Budget Survey 2017/18, reductions in value-added taxes from 18 per cent to 17 per cent and 16 per cent are simulated. The revenue losses and impact on poverty are estimated. The rules for direct taxes are then modified in order to identify ways in which the revenue loss caused by the lowering of the standard rate of value-added taxes can be recouped.
Constraints on the performance and competitiveness of Tanzania’s manufacturing
Roseline Misati | Kethi Ngoka
Abstract: This study sought to examine the main constraints to manufacturing export competitiveness in Tanzania. Using panel data for the period 1997–2018, the study established that supply-side factors dominate demand-side factors in explaining manufacturing export competitiveness. Specifically, the results revealed that foreign direct investment and tariffs have a negative and significant effect on export competitiveness in Tanzania, while infrastructure, total investment, labour productivity, and high institutional quality enhance manufactured exports. The study also showed scope for quality upgrading through technology diffusion as well as deeper integration of Tanzania’s nascent global value chains by building on existing competencies and negotiating deep trade agreements to increase market reach. Accordingly, measures to increase investment in infrastructure, strengthen institutional frameworks, and further develop human capital can boost export competitiveness in Tanzania. In addition, export competitiveness can be enhanced through reduction of tariffs and incentives to use cheaper value-adding intermediate inputs.
Long-run rural livelihood diversification in Kagera, Tanzania
Ralitza Dimova | Sandra Kristine Halvorsen | Milla Nyyassola | Kunal Sen
Abstract: What drives livelihood diversification among predominantly rural households in developing countries and how can welfare-enhancing patterns be established and sustained in the long run? A large literature has focused on whether income diversification is a means of survival or a means of accumulation, but it remains inconclusive. We first examine the pattern of income diversification for a panel of households in Tanzania from the 1990s—the Kagera Health and Development Survey—with a focus on whether it is primarily driven by survivalist or accumulation motives. We then verify whether this pattern is sustained in the long run using the 2004 wave of the survey while also studying the role that infrastructural improvements and entry into new income generation activities play in the process. Our results support the accumulation hypothesis: richer households engage in more income diversification than poorer households. We also find that the greater diversification of better-off households that was observed in the 1990s persists in 2004. At the same time, households that were originally poorer are found to experience higher incomes by diversifying into off-farm self-employment activities. Factors that explain these improvements include access to a daily market and public transport.
UONGOZI Institute Newsletter: July – December 2020
This issue of UONGOZI Institute’s newsletter highlights the top stories from July – December 2020.
Upgrading in global, regional and national value chains: Policy lessons from the Tanzanian textiles and apparel sector
Julian Boys | Antonio Andreoni
Abstract: With heightened uncertainties in markets worldwide, attention is shifting from global value chains (GVCs) to regional value chains (RVCs) and national value chains (NVCs) as pathways to industrialisation. Focusing on the Tanzanian textiles and apparel (T&A) sector, our study (Boys and Andreoni, 2020) found that while GVCs made the greatest contribution to recent employment and export growth, firms engaged in intra-African RVCs and NVCs carried out relatively higher-value activities, and RVCs and NVCs can be learning grounds for productive upgrading and strategic GVC integration. To maximize the contribution of RVCs and NVCs to industrialisation, African regional trade agreements should adopt relaxed ‘single transformation’ Rules of Origin allowing T&A products made from imported inputs to be sold duty-free in Africa.
Value chain directionality, upgrading, and industrial policy in the Tanzanian textile and apparel sectors
Julian Boys | Antonio Andreoni
Abstract: With recent changes in the global economy, policymakers are increasingly turning from global value chains to regional and national value chains as drivers of structural transformation in the global South. This paper examines economic and social upgrading in the Tanzanian textile and apparel sectors, with a particular focus on how outcomes vary across value chains, i.e. with value chain directionality. We also analyse industrial and trade policies at the national, regional, and global levels to see the extent to which they allocate rents that enable firms to capitalize strategically on the benefits offered by different value chain types. Data are drawn from fieldwork comprising a firm survey and semi-structured interviews with policymakers, as well as from official sources. We find that national, regional, and global value chains each offer distinct opportunities in terms of functional, product, process, and end-market upgrading as well as other economic and social outcomes and that while policy rents have been critical to the outcomes observed, there is scope to improve multi-scalar industrial policy design to achieve rapid structural transformation.
Trade, technology, and absorptive capacity: Firm-level evidence across geographical clusters in the Tanzanian textiles and apparel sector
Amrita Saha | André Castro | Marco Carreras | Daniele Guariso
Abstract: Trade-linked technological change has potential to increase incomes in low-income countries (LICs). The most labour-intensive segments of the textiles and apparel global value chain are in LICs. However, gaps between available technologies and best practices make it difficult to adopt more efficient production processes or move into higher value-added functions. This paper examines current technology use in the Tanzanian textiles and apparel sector, using nationally representative secondary data, primary quantitative data, and qualitative information from semi-structured interviews. First, we examine whether firms’ absorptive capacity mediates the effect of imported technology on firm productivity. Second, we look at differences across geographical clusters of firms in terms of local linkage types. Third, we assess current technology, gaps in firms’ capabilities, and challenges in the sector to identify policy implications. Finally, we provide brief reflections on how firms in the Tanzanian textiles and apparel sector may adapt in the post-COVID-19 recovery phase.
Impact of a Single Customs Territory in the East African Community on Tanzania’s exports
Anne Kamau | Maureen Odongo
Abstract: The implementation of a Single Customs Territory by East African Community countries is intended to ease the movement of goods across borders by cutting costs and time through harmonization and simplification of customs documents, removal of burdensome customs procedures, and automation of customs systems. Using descriptive statistics and an econometrics estimation method, this study examines the impact of a Single Customs Territory on Tanzania’s exports from 2004 to 2018. The key findings reveal that Tanzania’s merchandise exports to East African Community countries have remained low under the Single Customs Territory. Challenges persist as trade costs remain high and it takes a significant amount of time to export goods. Policy proposals include relaxation of border costs and time required, expeditious harmonization of customs systems and documentation, investment in cargo-related infrastructure, value addition of exports, and ratification of agreements.
Public debt sustainability and debt dynamics: The case of Tanzania
Maureen Were | Lekinye Mollel
Abstract: Rising public debt in sub-Saharan Africa remains a matter of concern. We provide an analysis of public debt and debt sustainability in Tanzania, focusing on external debt. Though current and previous analyses using the IMF-World Bank debt sustainability framework indicate low risk of public external debt distress, these analyses are sensitive to exchange rate volatility and export shocks and are predicated on strong assumptions of robust future economic growth and reduced government borrowing. Moreover, empirical evidence of debt sustainability based on the fiscal reaction function approach is weak. The challenge lies in ensuring debt remains sustainable, given the need to scale up development expenditure to address infrastructure gaps amid dwindling donor financing and vulnerability to exogenous shocks, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Rapid debt accumulation—particularly commercial debt—could expose Tanzania to external risks. Leveraging on concessional borrowing, efficient public investment, enhanced debt management, and domestic resource mobilization are critical.
Income diversification and household welfare in Tanzania 2008–13
Rumman Khan | Oliver Morrissey
Abstract: This paper uses three waves of Tanzanian National Panel Surveys (2008/09, 2010/11, and 2012/13) to construct a panel from 3,676 households that appear in at least two waves to explore the effect of income diversification on household welfare measured in terms of food consumption. The analysis considers four sources of labour income in addition to farming. Increasing diversification is associated with higher welfare, but there are differences by gender and activity type. Non-agricultural wage employment is clearly beneficial, irrespective of gender, and has had relatively high growth. Non-agricultural self-employment is a welfare-increasing diversification strategy, especially in rural areas (although females benefit more than males in urban areas), but growth has been slow. Agricultural wage employment has been a major source of increased employment for females from poorer rural households but appears to be chosen as the only available option as it is not associated with increasing household consumption.
Closing the gap: Gender and innovation
Abstract: Innovation generally takes place in male-dominated industries. A gender gap might therefore exist. This study used data from the 2015 Tanzania Firm-Level Skills Survey to investigate the gender innovation gap between female-owned enterprises and male-owned enterprises. A non-linear Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition was used to decompose the mean differences in innovation performance into the endowments effect that reflects resource endowments and the coefficients effect relating to resource utilization. The study found that female-owned enterprises faced an 18.1 percentage point lower probability of innovation when compared to male-owned enterprises. The endowments effect had a positive association with the gender innovation gap. In contrast, the coefficients effect was negatively associated with the gender innovation gap. Policies aimed at reducing gender inequalities in innovation need to strike a balance between enhancing resource acquisition by female-owned enterprises and improving resource utilization by their male counterparts to prevent reversals in the gender innovation gap.
Partnerships for inclusive growth: Can linkages with large firms spur the growth of SMEs in Tanzania?
Josaphat Kweka | Fadhili Sooi
Abstract: A recent strand of literature on small and medium enterprise (SME) development identifies linkages with large firms as some of the enablers of development and competitiveness. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we assess the extent and determinants of linkages between SMEs and large firms in Tanzania and to what degree the linkage is an important driver of SME performance. We find that, while linkages with large firms are potentially beneficial for the increased performance of SMEs, the level of such linkages is low in Tanzania and is likely to be influenced by the firm’s production capacity, training, exporting, foreign ownership, industry association, and technology partnerships. This implies that the government’s efforts to promote SMEs should include policies or programmes that nurture partnerships with large firms.
Weather shocks and child nutrition: Evidence from Tanzania
Aimable Nsabimana | Justice Tei Mensah
Abstract: In this paper, we examine the relationship between childhood exposure to adverse weather shocks and nutritional and health outcomes of children in Tanzania. Using household panel data matched with spatially disaggregated data on weather shocks, we exploit the plausibly exogenous variations in the exposure to weather shocks to estimate the relationship. Our results reveal a positive association between exposure to dry weather shocks and stunting among children. The effects are profound in the first twelve months after childbirth. The findings, however, indicate that wet shocks such as flooding have no discernible impact on child health.
The Green Growth Platform 2019
This report provides edited summaries from all presentations and discussion sessions at the sixth Green Growth Platform “Promoting Forest Management for Sustainable Water Resource in Tanzania”, held from 31 July – 1 August, 2019, in Dodoma, under the patronage of H.E. Samia Suluhu Hassan, Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania.
Launched in 2010, the Platform aims to increase awareness and understanding of issues related to green growth and its potential for Tanzania’s development. It’s a proactive tool for creating cross-sectoral linkages, building long-term social capital and promoting economic and social wellbeing, while safeguarding the ecosystems and environment that sustain us all.
UONGOZI Institute Newsletter: January-June 2020
This issue of UONGOZI Institute’s newsletter highlights the top stories from the first half of 2020.
Enhancing National Ownership in the Mining Sector: Domesticating the Africa Mining Vision
The Africa Mining Vision (AMV), a policy framework created by the African Union to ensure that the continent utilises its mineral resources strategically for broad-based, inclusive development, was the basis for a two-day regional forum convened by UONGOZI Institute in collaboration with the Ministry of Minerals and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) from 9 – 10 May, 2019, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
This publication provides a summary of the presentations and discussions during the forum.
The African Leadership Forum 2019
This report provides edited summaries from all presentations and discussion sessions at the sixth African Leadership Forum, convened by H.E. Benjamin William Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania from 29 – 30 August 2019, in Dar es Salaam. The Forum, organised by UONGOZI Institute, deliberated on “Promoting Good Natural Resource Management for Socio-Economic Transformation in Africa”.
The keynote address was delivered by H.E. Mkapa followed by plenary discussion and an address by the H.E. Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli, President of the United Republic of Tanzania. The Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Samia Suluhu Hassan, and five former African Heads of State were in attendance.
UONGOZI Institute Newsletter: July-December 2019
This issue of UONGOZI Institute’s newsletter provides an account of the key events and activities that took place in the period of July – December, 2019.
Deepening Integration in SADC: Achievements, Challenges and Opportunities
On 15 August 2019, the SADC secretariat, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and East African Cooperation, UONGOZI Institute, and the University of Dar es Salaam jointly hosted a public lecture titled “Deepening Integration in SADC: Achievements, Challenges and Opportunities” at the Library Auditorium of the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of this lecture was to stimulate a critical and high-level discourse on regional integration with specific focus on the SADC region.
This publication provides a summary of the remarks and discussions during the event.
Book Review: My Life, My Purpose – A Tanzanian President Remembers
This is a review of H.E. Benjamin William Mkapa’s autobiography, titled “My Life, My Purpose: A Tanzanian President Remembers”, by Prof. Rwekaza Mukandala, Mwalimu Nyerere Chair in Pan-African Studies.
The book, published by Mkuki na Nyota with support of UONGOZI Institute, contains H.E. Mkapa’s personal account of his unique memories. The memoirs range from his childhood, time as president, and his continuing post-retirement involvement at the domestic and international stages. They are enriched by his views on leadership and advice for aspiring leaders.
Statement of the African Leadership Forum 2019
This is the Statement of the sixth African Leadership Forum (ALF), convened by H.E. Benjamin William Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania and organised by UONGOZI Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from 29th – 30th August, 2019
The Forum, under the theme “Promoting Good Natural Resource Management for Socio-economic Transformation in Africa”, sought to reflect on the potential for land, wildlife, fishery and forestry in fostering socio-economic transformation in Africa, as well as to address the noted widespread unsustainable use of natural resources across the continent and the anticipated socio-economic, environmental and climate change consequences.
Green Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Guide for Policy Makers
This guide provides information for policy makers and planners on formulating policies and programmes that are supportive of green industrialization in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The guide is structured in the following six sections.
- Section 1 defines “green industrialization” and the related concepts of “green economy”, “green growth” and “green jobs”.
- Section 2 identifies potential data sources and indicators for measuring industrial resource use and environmental pollution, which are essential for assessing and monitoring progress towards green industrialization.
- Section 3 describes common policies, programmes and instruments for directly greening industries and services.
- Section 4 identifies other national policies that can contribute to green industrialization.
- Section 5 presents an overview of assessments of green industrial policy in three Sub-Saharan
countries: Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal.
- Section 6 concludes the guide.
The Role of State-Owned Enterprises in Industrialization in Tanzania: Lessons from East Asian Economies
Inspired by the success of countries in East Asia, the Government of Tanzania is aggressively pursuing industrialization as a strategy to accelerate socio-economic development, create jobs and substantially reduce poverty. Notably, many economies in that region achieved a high level of industrialization and economic transformation through the participation of a large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) sector. This leads to the question: What role can SOEs play to support industrialization in Tanzania?
To stimulate and exchange views on this critical issue, UONGOZI Institute in collaboration with the Office of the Treasury Registrar within the Ministry of Finance and Planning convened a roundtable policy forum in July, 2018. This brief summarizes the key messages and policy recommendations from the meeting.
The African Leadership Forum 2018
Despite significant progress made on the economic front, African policy makers still face a significant challenge in mobilising resources to finance development. In essence, Africa requires more, and better, financing. However, given the ambitious aspirations at national, regional, and the continental levels, are Africans ready to take on increased responsibility for financing their transformation?
It is against this background that H.E. Benjamin Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, convened the fifth African Leadership Forum (ALF) in Kigali, Rwanda on 2nd and 3rd August, 2018 under the theme “Financing Africa’s Transformation for Sustainable Development”.
This publication provides a summary of the deliberations that took place at the African Leadership Forum 2018.
Africa in the Global Peace and Security Architecture: Overcoming Gridlocks to Peace
Peace and security underpin sustainable development. Despite efforts to date, Africa continues to face serious peace and security challenges; several African Union and United Nations peacekeeping missions are active on the continent, and the numbers of national and sub-national conflicts are increasing. In response, H.E. Thabo Mbeki, former President of South Africa, and H.E. Benjamin Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, convened the fourth African Leadership Forum (ALF) in Johannesburg on 24th – 25th August, 2017 under the theme “Peace and Security for an Integrated, United and Sustainable Africa”. The discussions during ALF 2017 were well received. In particular, the dialogue on ‘Africa’s position in the global security architecture’ was highlighted as a topic in need of further discussion. Therefore, the UONGOZI Institute organised a follow-up event with the theme “Africa in the Global Peace and Security Architecture—Overcoming the Gridlocks to Peace.”
This report provides a summary of the discussions that took place at the ALF 2017 follow-up meeting.
Research Paper: What Enables or Disables Leadership for Transformational Change in Africa?
This paper reviews the findings of a study that hypothesised that leadership had been instrumental to bringing about change in Africa but acknowledged that what constituted leadership, and how leadership had facilitated change, was poorly understood.
Led by UONGOZI Institute and the Developmental Leadership Program, the study sought to unpack how change had taken place, how fundamental it had been, the role leadership had played and the factors that had both enabled and hindered the achievement of change. The overarching research question was, ‘What are the enablers and disablers of leadership for transformational change in Africa?’
The study covered nine case studies from six African countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa and Uganda.
Research Paper: Youth Participation and Non-violent Resistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo – The Case of LUCHA
In 2012, a small youth-led movement emerged in Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This called itself LUCHA, a portmanteau of the French phrase Lutte pour le changement (‘struggle for change’). What differentiated LUCHA from many other movements that had emerged in the eastern DRC was that it was explicitly against the use of violence. Rather, LUCHA sought to use peaceful protest to hold the Congolese government to account and agitate for change for Congolese citizens.
This paper presents a case study of LUCHA as an example of leadership for transformational change in DRC. It finds that bringing about political change—both at the elite level and in terms of the civic empowerment of the Congolese people—is one of the guiding principles of LUCHA, and seeks to unpick how the movement has brought about this change. It finds that LUCHA’s horizontal leadership structures and collaborative form of leadership have been instrumental in its success, although at times its leadership style has also created certain divisions within the movement. While the study focuses primarily on the single case of LUCHA in DRC, it draws on literature that examines youth, horizontal leadership and social movements from around the world, as well as literature on similar African youth movements, such as Y’en a marre in Senegal and Le balai citoyen in Burkina Faso.
Research Paper: ‘I fought the law and the law won’ – Community Policing in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
This paper examines the introduction of community policing in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, and the relationships in the district between formal policing structures and non-state security actors. It draws on fieldwork (spring, 2017) to show that these relationships are complex – there is neither a simple dichotomy between state and non-state nor an emerging clear and hybrid system. Rather, the institutional multiplicity available gives a series of choices to those seeking justice and also to those providing it.
The community police initiative offers a positive way of reducing friction between the different policing providers – by acting as an interlocutor, but also by recognising the legitimacy of local actors in some instances and enforcing the state’s legitimacy in others. In this way, local providers can use local actors to enhance their reach and effectiveness but also to extend the reach of the state and the legitimacy of the law at the local level.
Enhancing Value Addition In the Extractive Sector in Africa
The Office of the Vice President of the Republic of Ghana in collaboration with UONGOZI Institute of the United Republic of Tanzania co-organized a two-day regional forum for stakeholders in the extractive sector to discuss how African countries should position themselves to optimize benefits from the extractive sector through the design and implementation of value addition strategies. The forum was held in Accra, Ghana, on 4-5 December 2017.
The Forum was officiated by the Vice President of the Republic of Ghana, H.E. Dr. Mahamudu Bawumia, with welcoming remarks from Hon. John Peter Amewu, Ghanaian Minister of Lands and Natural Resources. Participants included high-level representatives from the public and private sectors, academia and civil society. In total, about 100 participants from 15 countries attended.
This report summarises the deliberations that took place at the forum.
The African Leadership Forum 2017
Achieving peace and security in Africa is of the utmost concern not only due to the immediate, destructive and often fatal outcomes from outbreaks of violence, but also because the presence of conflict undermines the continent’s long-term sustainable development. Consequently, the African Union has given peace and security due prominence. “A peaceful and secure Africa” is one of the key aspirations of the AU’s Agenda 2063 with the goal that “by 2020 all guns will be silent.” The continent has also put in place the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), a set of structures for the prevention, management and resolution of crises and conflicts, as well as post-conflict reconstruction. Unfortunately, despite these intentions and efforts to date, lasting peace and security on the continent remains elusive.
It is against this background that H.E. Thabo Mbeki, former President of South Africa, and H.E. Benjamin Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, convened the fourth African Leadership Forum (ALF) in Johannesburg on 24-25 August 2017 under the theme “Peace and Security for an Integrated, United and Sustainable Africa”.
This publication provides a summary of the deliberations that took place at the African Leadership Forum 2017.
International Gas Outlook and Implications for Developing Tanzania’s Gas Projects
This brief reviews recent international gas developments, the outlook in this regard and implications for the development of proposed offshore gas projects in Tanzania. As the country aims to benefit from its gas discoveries by increasing its domestic gas use, it also outlines some of the trade-offs and considerations that need to be taken into account when negotiating the domestic gas allocation.
The Social License to Operate in Tanzania: Case Studies of the Petroleum and Mining Sectors
The concept of a social license to operate (SLO) has become a key issue for companies, researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders in the extractive sector. Securing ‘social permission’ for extractive activities is increasingly seen as critical for the future profitability and sustainability of the sector.
Despite the long history of extractive activities in Tanzania, very few studies have examined SLO from the perspective of local communities. This research, therefore, sought to assess whether SLO exists in two of Tanzania’s leading extractive sectors (mining and petroleum) by seeking the perceptions of community members and local officials in the areas around a sample of large-scale mining operations in the country.
For the purposes of the research, a conceptual framework was developed for identifying and assessing the key factors involved in gaining and maintaining an SLO. An exploratory qualitative study was then conducted to confirm the elements of the framework, establish whether SLO existed in practice in the Tanzanian context, and document the attendant processes.
Extractives for Human Development: Maximising domestic participation along the value chain
UONGOZI Institute in collaboration with the Ministry of Land, Water, Energy and Environment of Zanzibar organized the regional roundtable “Extractives for Human Development: Maximizing Domestic Participation Along the Value Chain,” on 27-28 October 2016.
The forum brought together stakeholders in the extractive sector from Tanzania and internationally, including representatives from Kenya, Uganda, South Africa, Sierra Leone and Ghana. Delegates included high-level representatives from the public and private sector, academia and civil society. The event featured a series of expert presentations and two broad-ranging panel discussions with the primary goal of examining how to optimize benefits from domestic participation in the extractive sector. This is a report of the roundtable discussion.
RR 17/1: Women and Political Leadership: Facilitating Factors in Tanzania
Based on a women and empowerment framework, this study used a life history approach to identify the factors in their life cycle that influenced and helped women during their journey to political empowerment in Tanzania. Twenty women shared with the authors their lived experiences of this journey. This study shows that parents, particularly fathers, played a central role in their empowerment, either by investing in their daughters’ education or by inspiring them and serving as role models to them. Further, most of the women interviewed indicated that their spouses supported their leadership journey by providing emotional support and the financial resources needed, and by helping them to maintain a family-work balance. The respondents underscored the importance of these role models, who, as they explained, stirred their interest, supported their determination to make a difference and their personal ambition to attain a leadership role, and inspired in them a personal desire to serve others. Schools and teachers also influenced them on this journey; nurturing the respondents’ leadership talents by giving them leadership roles when they were schoolgirls, encouraging their progress, and serving as another form of role model. Both informal and formal networks were key resources in enhancing the participants’ capacity and in supporting their aspirations to fulfill their potential.
Public Private Partnerships in Sub-Saharan Africa: Case Studies for Policymakers
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure involve the private sector in designing, building, financing and operating public infrastructure in sectors such as power generation, transportation (e.g. toll roads or railways), utilities (e.g. water supply), social infrastructure (e.g. hospitals) and government accommodation. Unlike privatisation, infrastructure procured through a PPP remains a public-sector asset. The growth in PPPs has been attributed to several reasons, including increased efficiency in project delivery and operation; reinforcing competition; access to advanced technology; and reducing government budgetary constraints by accessing private capital.
The development of PPPs in sub-Saharan Africa has been relatively slow compared to other parts of the developing world but is now gathering pace. These case studies are intended to give policymakers in sub-Saharan Africa an insight into the ‘real world’ of PPPs in the region. The case studies illustrate some of the key policy issues that have to be considered, and obstacles that have to be overcome, both when procuring a PPP and while managing the PPP contract over its life. Lessons learned from these case studies can be used to shape more effective PPP policies.
UONGOZI Institute Newsletter: July-December 2016
This issue of UONGOZI Institute’s newsletter provides an account of the key events and activities that took place in the period of July – December, 2016.
African Leadership Forum 2016_French
Malgré des progrès énormes accomplis au cours des années récentes, l’entreprise en Afrique continue à faire face aux défis considérables, notamment le manque d’infrastructures, surtout l’alimentation énergétique fiable, le manque de capitaux, particulièrement pour les petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) et le secteur agroalimentaire.
C’est dans ce contexte que l’ancien Président de la République-Unie de Tanzanie, S.E. Benjamin Mkapa, a convoqué le 3ème Forum des dirigeants africains (FDA) à Dar es Salaam du 28 au 29 juillet 2016 autour du thème « Mettre les entreprises africaines en mesure de transformer le continent ». Organisé par l’Institut des dirigeants africains pour le développement durable, connu communément sous le nom de « Uongozi Institute » (Institut de leadership), le Forum regroupe les dirigeants politiques, notamment des anciens chefs d’Etat ainsi que des dirigeants gouvernementaux, des chefs d’entreprise, des organisateurs de la société civile et le monde universitaire. Un discours liminaire et une séance plénière et publique suivis de trois tables rondes à huis clos ont marqué l’événement. Pour la première fois cette année, des représentants choisis parmi la jeunesse ont été invités pour tenir des séances parallèles. A la fin de l’événement, le Forum de la jeunesse a fait une déclaration.
Cette publication présente un résumé des discours et des délibérations qui ont eu lieu lors de l’Forum des dirigeants africains 2016.
The African Leadership Forum 2016_English
Despite tremendous progress in recent years, African business still faces significant challenges, including the lack of infrastructure, particularly reliable power supplies, and lack of capital, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and farmers.
It is against this background that the former President of the United Republic of Tanzania H.E. Benjamin Mkapa convened the third African Leadership Forum (ALF) in Dar es Salaam on 28-29 July 2016 under the theme “Enabling African Businesses to Transform the Continent”. Organized by the Institute of African Leadership for Sustainable Development, popularly known as the UONGOZI Institute, the Forum brought together political leaders including former heads of state as well as leaders from government, business, civil society and academia. The event featured a keynote address and public plenary followed by three closed panel sessions. For the first time this year, selected youth representatives were invited to hold parallel sessions. A Statement from the Youth Forum was delivered at the conclusion of the event.
This publication provides a summary of the deliberations that took place at the African Leadership Forum 2016.
Managing Relations Between Investors in the Extractive Sector & Local Communities
As part of its work to support leaders in Tanzania, the Institute of African Leadership for Sustainable Development (UONGOZI Institute) has a dedicated program on Natural Resources Management for Human Development. This program aims to support the
Tanzanian government to improve governance in the extractive sector and to secure the best possible returns for the country while bringing about broad-based domestic growth and development.
The extractive sector is one of the key growth sectors in many countries in Africa, including Tanzania. However, the sector also has the largest incidence of conflicts and disputes between resource companies and local communities. Managing relations within the extractive industry is, therefore, a key consideration to secure optimal benefits from the sector.
UONGOZI Institute organized a regional roundtable on the theme Managing Relations between Investors in the Extractive Sector and Local Communities in June, 2016. This publication provides a summary of the roundtable discussion.
The Global Climate Policy Conference 2016 Report
This report summarises findings of the 3rd Global Climate Policy Conference (GCPC) held on 13-14 July 2016 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The conference was convened by Climate Strategies, a network of senior climate policy researchers, in partnership with the Institute of African Leadership for Sustainable Development (UONGOZI Institute) and the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
UONGOZI Insititute’s Strategic Plan 2016-2021
This is UONGOZI Institute’s second five-year strategic plan. Under this new strategic plan, the Institute will continue on its course of becoming a centre of excellence for leadership for sustainable development in Africa.
The African Leadership Forum 2015: Moving towards an integrated Africa
Recognizing the critical importance of integration to the transformation and sustainable development of Africa as envisioned by Agenda 2063, the former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Benjamin Mkapa convened the second African Leadership Forum (ALF) in Dar es Salaam on 30 July 2015.
The event brought together political leaders, including current and former Heads of State, as well as leaders from government, business, civil society and academia. The theme of the Forum was “Moving Towards an Integrated Africa”. The event provided a platform to explore how best to overcome the obstacles to intra-African interaction, collaboration, coordination and harmonization so that Africa’s richness could be better marshalled to realize the common goals of prosperity and security of the continent and its people.
The Future of Eastern African Cities: How do we want to live in 2050?
UONGOZI Institute organized a regional roundtable discussion to engage leaders to envision how we would like to live in 2050. The event brought together participants of diverse nationalities, expertise and experience to envision the future of cities in Eastern Africa. Delegates were tasked to look forward in a constructive manner on how to exploit the opportunities that exist today to achieve a desired
tomorrow. Over the course of the forum, representatives from government, academia, the private sector and civil society provided insightful analysis and identified innovative pathways for realizing urban prosperity in Eastern Africa. The key issues raised to address the complexities of urban growth and achieve the goal of sustainable towns and cities throughout the region are covered in this publication.
The African Leadership Forum 2014: Meeting the Challenges of Africa’s Transformation
A new Africa has emerged. An African renaissance is underway, whereby a growing number of determined and self-confident Africans are working to transform their countries’ economies to accelerate the rate of human and economic development. Given the continent’s stage of development, Africa has the opportunity to become the catalyst and driving force for sustainable development globally. To achieve this, Africa will need to tap into its past successes whilst planning and pursuing a logical, inclusive, collective and sustainable path to national, regional and continental progress.
It is against this background that the former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Benjamin Mkapa convened the inaugural African Leadership Forum (ALF) in Dar es Salaam on 31 July 2014. Organized by the Institute of African Leadership for Sustainable Development, popularly known as the UONGOZI Institute, the event brought together political leaders including former heads of state as well as leaders from government, business, civil society and academia.
Towards a Green Economy: Exploring the potential of forestry in Tanzania through the Green Growth Platform
Between 8-10 May 2012, the Institute of African Leadership for Sustainable Development (UONGOZI Institute) launched the Green Growth Platform (GGP) and hosted the Decision Makers’ Forest Academy (DMFA) in Iringa, Tanzania – the first event of its kind in Africa. As a core activity within the Green Growth Platform, the Forest Academy, a concept adapted from one developed by the Finnish
Forest Association brings together high-level leaders from government, the private sector and civil society to discuss and experience the critical issues facing the forestry industry in Tanzania.
This publication introduces the Green Growth Platform and the DMFA’s unique learning approach and shares the ideas and insights from participants attending the event in Iringa. The first part of the document presents an overview of the GGP and the platform’s launch, while the second part gives an insider’s view of the presentations, discussions and field visits that were conducted as a part of the Forest Academy.
Public Private Partnerships: An alternative financing mechanism for delivering public services
Public Private Partnerships have emerged as a viable institutional arrangement for financing and delivering public services. A successful PPP capitalises on the strengths of both public and private sectors to provide better and more cost-effective public services, and to speed up the rate of implementation or coverage of services. In the context of developing countries, PPPs can help to boost economic growth, reduce poverty and improve well-being. Consequently, governments are promoting the use of PPPs within their national development strategies. However, while PPPs may have a number of advantages, they are also complex to design, implement and manage. Therefore, governments should only pursue PPPs if certain fundamentals are in place and the objectives of all parties can be met within the partnerships.
This brief introduces the concept of public-private partnerships and discusses salient issues in determining the suitability of PPP projects.
Thinking Outside the Box: A Case for Promoting the Charcoal Industry in Tanzania
Charcoal is Tanzania’s most important domestic energy source and this is not likely to change in the foreseeable future. Demand
for charcoal is rising as Tanzania’s population grows and becomes increasingly urban. Yet, despite its importance and potential, charcoal is not positively perceived within the national policy environment, leading to unsustainable and inefficient charcoal production, deforestation and soil degradation, lost opportunities to modernise the charcoal value chain and lost revenue for the government. This brief argues that charcoal is pro-poor, can be pro-development and a potential driver of economic growth. Instead of being ashamed of the country’s association with charcoal, Tanzania can empower its citizens to develop and modernise the sector so that charcoal becomes a valuable, renewable, sustainable energy source.
Managing Natural Resources to Ensure Prosperity in Africa
The discovery and extraction of natural resources has the potetial to finance rapid, sustained and broad-based development. However, the historical record of resource discoveries in developing countries is deeply worrying. Often discoveries have led to the plunder of those resources, whereby the few expropriate revenues that should benefit the many, and the present generation unsustainably consume revenues that should benefit future generations. For countries to avoid the recurrence of plunder and take full advantage of the unprecedented opportunity of new resource discoveries, a set of distinct policy responses are required. To inform African policy makers, this brief outlines a series of five key policy decisions needed to ensure that resource wealth is effectively captured and utilized for national development.